Smoking interferes with the prognosis of dental implant treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis
: Frank Peter Strietzel
: Blackwell Synergy
Aim: This systematic literature review was performed to investigate if smoking
interferes with the prognosis of implants with and without accompanying
augmentation procedures compared with non-smokers.
Methods: A systematic electronic and handsearch (articles published between 1989
and 2005; English and German language; search terms Ã¢â‚¬ËœÃ¢â‚¬Ëœdental or oral implants
and smokingÃ¢â‚¬â„¢Ã¢â‚¬â„¢; Ã¢â‚¬ËœÃ¢â‚¬Ëœdental or oral implants and tobaccoÃ¢â‚¬â„¢Ã¢â‚¬â„¢) was performed to identify
publications providing numbers of failed implants, related to the numbers of smokers
and non-smokers for meta-analysis. Publications providing statistically examined data
of implant failures or biologic complications among smokers compared with nonsmokers
were included for systematic review.
Results: Of 139 publications identified, 29 were considered for meta-analysis and 35
for systematic review. Meta-analysis revealed a significantly enhanced risk for implant
failure among smokers [implant-related odds ratio (OR) 2.25, confidence interval
(CI95%) 1.96Ã¢â‚¬â€œ2.59; patient-related OR 2.64; CI95% 1.70Ã¢â‚¬â€œ4.09] compared with nonsmokers,
and for smokers receiving implants with accompanying augmentation
procedures (OR 3.61; CI95% 2.26Ã¢â‚¬â€œ5.77, implant related). The systematic review
indicated significantly enhanced risks of biologic complications among smokers. Five
studies revealed no significant impact of smoking on prognosis of implants with
particle-blasted, acid-etched or anodic oxidized surfaces.
Conclusion: Smoking is a significant risk factor for dental implant therapy and
augmentation procedures accompanying implantations.
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