Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs): an aid to assess confounding in dental research
: Merchant AT, Pitiphat W.
: Blackwell Synergy
Confounding, a special type of bias, occurs when an extraneous factor is
associated with the exposure and independently affects the outcome. In order to get an
unbiased estimate of the exposureÃ¢â‚¬â€œoutcome relationship, we need to identify potential
confounders, collect information on them, design appropriate studies, and adjust for
confounding in data analysis.
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